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30, 2016 , 4:00 PM Few aspects of scientific work may be as crucial—and yet as easy to neglect—as reading the literature.
Beginning a new research project or writing a grant application can be good opportunities for extensive literature searches, but carving out time to keep abreast of newly published papers on a regular basis is often challenging.The task is all the more daunting today, with the already vast literature continuing to grow at head-spinning speed 21 Mar 2016 - Many of you have come to us asking for more (and more serious) Although it is clear that reading scientific papers becomes easier with old library the paper, I typically read it in its entirety and then also read a few of Yes, many times. Mendeley helps me do my research, read literature, and write .The task is all the more daunting today, with the already vast literature continuing to grow at head-spinning speed.
To help you keep track of the literature and avoid feeling too overwhelmed, Science Careers asked scientists in a diverse range of fields to discuss how they integrate searching for papers, and reading them, into their working routine.Their responses have been edited for brevity and clarity 15 May 2018 - At Reading, for instance, English Literature and Film, Theatre and (Modern Humanities Research Association) style because it is good at dealing include Harvard, Oxford, APA, Chicago and Vancouver (numeric). Chicago style referencing offers two options for citations: either to list Journal article:..Their responses have been edited for brevity and clarity.Why is it important to keep up with the literature, and what are the challenges? Without keeping up with the literature, I can't know what other people are doing or contextualize my work.
In addition, through reading the literature I can find potential solutions to scientific barriers I am facing in my own research.But I do find it difficult to integrate this task into my daily routine g181.com/dissertation/help-me-with-a-english-dissertation-double-spaced-us-letter-size-premium-professional.But I do find it difficult to integrate this task into my daily routine.The demands on scientists in terms of outreach, administration, grant writing, teaching, and more are tremendous, and there are only 24 hours in a day., associate professor of cell and molecular biology at Uppsala University in Sweden Staying up to date with the literature is perhaps the single most important skill that remains crucial throughout a researcher’s career.
Without knowing where the current gaps are, your findings will either be old hat or too out in left field to be cited right away.
One of them is that reading papers can feel like dead time, because it is such a slow and absorbing process, and there are so many papers out there to digest.Reading can also feel disheartening, as you will often find that other people have already published on what you thought was a really novel or original idea.And so it can all too easily happen that this important task of investing in your knowledge gets prioritized lower than all the other apparently more urgent duties that you have as a scientist.- , team leader in transformational bioinformatics at the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation in Sydney, Australia Our job is to push the frontier of what is already known, so we need to be aware of where this frontier is.
However, trying to stay up to date with the literature is tremendously difficult.As an assistant professor, my job is to not only do research but also to teach, obtain funding, do professional service including peer review, give talks, attend committee meetings, and more.This constant multitasking makes it difficult to carve out time for keeping up with papers.Another challenge lies in the immense amount of new work that constantly gets published.The number of journals and venues is very large, and it continues to grow.
This is further aggravated if you work in a field that is multidisciplinary, because then this number is multiplied, becoming barely manageable.- , assistant professor of computer science at the University of Zaragoza in Spain It is extremely important to find what you need in the scientific literature, but it’s difficult for anyone to block out the necessary time.For young scientists in particular, there is the additional challenge of trying to stay on top of newly published literature while still building up knowledge of their research areas.- , former librarian and postdoctoral fellow at the California Digital Library in Oakland, California Keeping up is essential, no doubt about it.To be able to provide novel results, you have to know what has been done before you.
Plus, you want to benefit from all the ideas, data, and interpretations that have accumulated in the literature right up to that point.Thousands of papers are published daily.Another challenge for me is that my research is multi-faceted, so I need to read in my broader field, which covers a lot of ground.But keeping up with the literature is potentially an overwhelmingly large task, and there are no deadlines attached to it.And so, among all the other things that I have responsibilities for, it often feels hard to prioritize.- , associate professor of psychiatry and medical genetics at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada To make a contribution to scientific research and effectively teach my students, I need to be very familiar with the current state of knowledge and with what ideas and methods are being used at the frontier of my field.But I find that keeping up with the literature always comes with a trade-off: Do I spend more time on my research projects, or do I read the latest papers? - How do you find new papers you ought to read, and the time to read them?To keep on top of my specialty area, I carry out regular, systematic literature searches using a tool called PubCrawler.PubCrawler automatically searches online publication databases using key search terms that I set up, and it sends me a weekly email highlighting all the new and potentially relevant papers, with a link to the abstract or full text.
I find out about other recently published papers I ought to read from email alerts I get from the key journals in my area.I also become aware of new publications through colleagues who email me, and from social media.Twitter is an underutilized resource in science, but it’s great—if you follow the right people—for keeping your finger on the pulse of new work that is coming out.Regarding finding the time, unless I am actively writing a grant or paper, it is harder for me to keep up with the literature, because it’s not an urgent, immediate, deadline-driven need.So I have a set time once a week, on Mondays, to look at the output of my literature searching tools.
I sift through it all and then at least skim the papers that I find most relevant.I read journals’ tables of contents when I get them, usually also immediately downloading and at least skimming the papers that I find of most interest.Thorough reading of the full papers may be more sporadic.- Austin The tools I use to keep track of new literature are Feedly, which allows me to subscribe to the RSS feeds of relevant journals; a string of PubMed updates, which capture any relevant literature published outside those journals; and Twitter, which helps me identify what literature the broader scientific community is talking about.I like spending a few minutes every morning skimming recent publications for articles that are especially interesting or relevant to my work.
Coupled with a regular block every Friday devoted to more critical reading and lots of note taking, this generally allows me to stay up to date.Whatever routine you decide to set for yourself, I think the key is to find a way to interact with the literature regularly.- Borghi I continuously monitor the growing literature using the updates feature in Google Scholar, which recommends a selection of new papers to read based on your own publications.
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Monitoring the handful of main conferences in my field throughout the year, plus a couple of other relevant venues, also does a good job.Many conferences eventually publish their proceedings, and so whenever the lists of accepted papers get published, I also go through them as soon as I can and look at the papers that seem the most relevant to me.
Sometimes, reading the abstract suffices For decades, she offered me advice, revealing the problems that and Illustrate a Scientific Paper, plus our frequent emails and his unique 2. Table of Contents. Advice for modern academic writing . Anglo-American writers who seem to be “packaging” or When they were administrated a dose of 600 mg two times..Sometimes, reading the abstract suffices.
Other times, if it is closely related to my research, I print it for when I find time to go over it in more detail.Also, I make a point to regularly look at what leading researchers in my field publish and to talk to my peers.- Masia To know when relevant papers are published, I rely on alerts that the journals automatically send to highlight new publications that cite papers I found of interest previously Fall 2018 Undergraduate Courses English UMass Amherst.- Masia To know when relevant papers are published, I rely on alerts that the journals automatically send to highlight new publications that cite papers I found of interest previously.There is also substantial activity on social media, with journals promoting and researchers discussing new articles.
Reddit Science'sAsk Me Anything, or AMA, forum discussions are a great way to hear about innovative research and talk to the authors directly .Reddit Science'sAsk Me Anything, or AMA, forum discussions are a great way to hear about innovative research and talk to the authors directly.Recommender systems such as PubChase can also be great tools to hear about new papers early.However, most recommender systems find papers based on how similar they are to papers you previously read, which inevitably limits your exposure to tangential ideas that may be important to your research.I therefore like going through the tables of contents of my favorite journals.
In terms of how I find time for dealing with the literature, I usually go through email alerts as I get them to quickly become aware of the most important new publications.
I also find that tweeting or blogging about one paper a week, or a day, is a good incentive for reading in depth.Twitter is particularly good, as it forces me to condense the paper’s relevant outcomes down to 140 characters, which then promptly triggers my memory as I go through my Twitter feed.Other advantages of Twitter are that it helps me find researchers with similar interests and helps me build a brand.- Bauer One way I keep track of new papers being published is by subscribing to emails that include the tables of contents of the top or most widely read journals in my field.In economics there is usually a long publication lag, so I also have to be aware of working papers getting published and new publications being presented at conferences and in seminars.
Attending events and talking to others are very important ways to find out about the latest papers. I also follow some blogs written by economists and several economists on Twitter who tend to write about new papers.To deal with the time pressure, I try to be efficient in how I scan the literature. I find it very useful to at least read through the titles and abstracts of the latest papers published in the journals, and then I decide carefully which papers I should read extensively.- Ganguli To keep up with new papers being published, I use a combination of RSS feeds from journals in my field, Google Scholar Updates, the reference manager Papers, and recommendations from senior scientists on Faculty of 1000 or directly from colleagues.
Twitter is also becoming increasingly valuable as a tool for spreading exciting research, and I strongly recommend getting networked through social media.The volume of literature out there makes keeping track a collective effort, and it's also good to have a venue for promoting your own work amid the sea of information.But while I continuously scan what’s coming out, finding the time to read multiple papers in full is more difficult.And so, every few weeks, I try to download as many papers as I can—both newly published papers that are relevant to my work and older papers that I recently became aware of—and read them in chunks as the week progresses.Still, summer is best for reading—I have fewer teaching and administration obligations, so this is when I can really catch up with the literature.
- Kamerlin How do you go about conducting more extensive background literature searches? For general background reading in my field, I usually start by looking at new articles that have cited my work, as the likelihood that I am interested in what they have to write about is much higher.Similarly, I look at both recent and past citations to papers I found interesting to find further reading.For more targeted literature searches, Google—both Google Scholar and just the normal search bar—and PubMed are great.If I am moving into a new area, I usually contact colleagues, including people I know through conferences, and ask them if they have recommendation lists for me.- Kamerlin I find that, nowadays, searching for past literature is the easy part.
Search engines and Google Scholar, together with other tools which allow users to follow citations, do a good job.If discipline-specific conferences or journals exist, I also go through the papers published in them, going at least 5 years back.What I find much more challenging is how to organize the works that I read and knowledge I acquire, and how to search back through them.I first set up a dedicated digital database using existing tools.Mendeley is a well-known example; I myself use JabRef.
Then I archive hard copies of most of the papers I read, with the main contributions written on their front page.It is of no use going through a bunch of papers if you are unable to remember what you read in them.- Masia For historical searches, I usually start with PubMed, searching terms that make the most sense to me and expanding my scope of those search terms if I get limited results.Once I have a selection of key or index papers for a topic of interest, I pull the relevant papers cited within them.I also find out which papers later cited my index papers, for example by finding them on Google Scholar.
Often, through this process, I am able to develop new search terms to use in PubMed, so I may then again start the whole process iteratively.- Austin When conducting literature searches, I like to simultaneously look backward and forward: If I find a paper that I think describes a topic particularly well, I look at both the papers it cites and the papers that cite it.Tools like PubMed and Web of Science each have their own strengths and weaknesses but, if I’m trying to gain insight into a topic described in a paper, I typically start by using Google Scholar to look at the papers that reference the one I’m reading.- Borghi For broader searches, I have been applying “Ten Simple Rules for Searching and Organizing the Scientific Literature” for several years now with good results, although the technologies have changed slightly over time.
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Today, I usually start from the article that made me interested in the topic (what I call the seed paper) and read the papers that are cited in the references.
For this I use ReadCube, as it helps prioritize papers by the number of citations they have.Then I also try to find a review article on PubMed, which helps me identify other research groups in the field whose work might not have been referred to in the seed paper but is nonetheless important .Then I also try to find a review article on PubMed, which helps me identify other research groups in the field whose work might not have been referred to in the seed paper but is nonetheless important.
Finally, I try searches for research articles in PubMed and Google Scholar with very precise keywords and choose new seed papers from there, starting the process all over again.Eventually, this helps me establish connections between different schools of thought Where to buy a antique literature research paper Undergraduate 142 pages / 39050 words APA Business.Eventually, this helps me establish connections between different schools of thought.- Bauer Does the literature sometimes feel overwhelming? How do you prioritize what to read, and how do you reduce the chance of missing an important paper? It’s easy to feel overwhelmed with the flow of information Where to buy a antique literature research paper Undergraduate 142 pages / 39050 words APA Business.
- Bauer Does the literature sometimes feel overwhelming? How do you prioritize what to read, and how do you reduce the chance of missing an important paper? It’s easy to feel overwhelmed with the flow of information.
The decision to be made is one of sensitivity versus specificity.I tend to prioritize specificity (whether the papers I find are on target for me) and accept lower sensitivity (I’m not going to find everything that could potentially be relevant).I have drawn a line that makes sense for me based on the principle of diminishing returns.Of course, where exactly to draw this line is likely different for everyone.Regarding how to make sure nothing crucial escapes my attention, I try to send links to papers that I find to colleagues and students whom I think might be interested in them, given what I know about their work.
My hope is that, in turn, they will send things that they come across to me too, and then perhaps I will miss less.I also find that, when I am writing grants and papers and engaging in more thorough systematic literature reviews, I can catch up on things I may have missed.- Austin It is important to be exposed to ideas and approaches from other disciplines, but there can be an overwhelming amount of information if we try to read everything that gets published, and sometimes it is difficult to know where to draw the line. I prioritize the papers that are directly related to my own projects, especially when I am writing literature reviews for publications or grant proposals.
I also prioritize reading papers from the top journals in my main research areas to keep on top of which topics and methods are at the frontier of knowledge.
And then if I have some spare time, I also try to read papers that are a little bit further from my main research topics.There are certainly some times when you have that “I can’t believe I missed this paper” moment.But usually, if the papers are important enough, you will eventually find out about them through conference presentations, conversations with colleagues, Twitter, blogs, magazines, or other channels.You just hope you don’t have that moment when reading a report from a referee who isn’t happy that you missed an important citation! - Ganguli The number of papers out there makes it impossible not to miss important papers, especially when you are working in multiple disciplines.So I prioritize my reading in terms of what is most immediately relevant to what I am working on, and then I fan out from there as time allows.
- Kamerlin Trying to read too broadly, too deeply, or too quickly is a sure path to information overload. So don’t try to read it all at once! Scientists who are feeling overwhelmed by the flow of information should take a step back and think about what exactly they’re looking for in the literature—and then prioritize the papers directly related to that question.It also helps to realize that, ultimately, a single scientist can’t read everything.A group of scientists navigating different branches of the literature can however cover a lot of ground.Personally, I’ve benefited greatly from collaborators and friends working in fields adjacent to my own pointing me toward things they’ve come across.
- Borghi Are there any potential pitfalls that you’d like to highlight for young scientists? Do you have any further advice? Young scientists sometimes tend to neglect the literature.They look at a number of related papers when they start working on their project, but then they fail to keep looking for more papers as their research—and the work of other researchers—progresses.They also rarely go back to the literature they’ve searched and read, even though it remains a great source of inspiration.- Masia Talk to librarians! Depending on their area of expertise, they may be able to give you specific advice about accessing important papers or navigating the scientific literature.Even if they don’t have specific subject area knowledge, librarians are an often-untapped source of knowledge about how scholarly information is organized, evaluated, and disseminated.
- Borghi Remember that we walk on the shoulders of giants.Einstein would be a notable example, and Darwin’s work is still as relevant to evolutionary biologists today as it was in his day.In other words, don’t limit your literature searches to the 21st century.- Negro At the early stages of your research career, it's especially important that you take the time each day to get up to speed with the literature.I would recommend trying the different tools available and experimenting with your reading routine until you find what works for you.
There are so many great options out there, and people have different tastes in terms of what they are comfortable with.Also, don't be afraid to ask your adviser for literature recommendations.Finally, it’s a good idea to set up a physical or virtual journal club to share papers and discuss ideas with your peers.21, 2016 , 1:15 PM Science Careers readers.
Many of you have come to us asking for more (and more serious) advice on how to make sense of the scientific literature, so we’ve asked a dozen scientists at different career stages and in a broad range of fields to tell us how they do it.Although it is clear that reading scientific papers becomes easier with experience, the stumbling blocks are real, and it is up to each scientist to identify and apply the techniques that work best for them.The responses have been edited for clarity and brevity.How do you approach reading a paper? I start by reading the abstract.Then, I skim the introduction and flip through the article to look at the figures.
I try to identify the most prominent one or two figures, and I really make sure I understand what's going on in them.
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Only when I have done that will I go back into the technical details to clarify any questions I might have.-I first get a general idea by reading the abstract and conclusions.The conclusions help me understand if the goal summarized in the abstract has been reached, and if the described work can be of interest for my own study Get a custom writing help antique literature research paper Writing from scratch single spaced American University.
The conclusions help me understand if the goal summarized in the abstract has been reached, and if the described work can be of interest for my own study.
I also always look at plots/figures, as they help me get a first impression of a paper.Then I usually read the entire article from beginning to end, going through the sections in the order they appear so that I can follow the flow of work that the authors want to communicate.If you want to make it a productive exercise, you need to have a clear idea of which kind of information you need to get in the first place, and then focus on that aspect.It could be to compare your results with the ones presented by the authors, put your own analysis into context, or extend it using the newly published data.Citation lists can help you decide why the paper may be most relevant to you by giving you a first impression of how colleagues that do similar research as you do may have used the paper.
-G ttingen, Germany If I’m aiming to just get the main points, I’ll read the abstract, hop to the figures, and scan the discussion for important points.I think the figures are the most important part of the paper, because the abstract and body of the paper can be manipulated and shaped to tell a compelling story.Then anything I’m unclear about, I head to the methodology.If I want to delve deeper into the paper, I typically read it in its entirety and then also read a few of the previous papers from that group or other articles on the same topic.If there is a reference after a statement that I find particularly interesting or controversial, I also look it up.
Should I need more detail, I access any provided data repositories or supplemental information.Then, if the authors' research is similar to my own, I see if their relevant data match our findings or if there are any inconsistencies.If there are, I think about what could be causing them.Additionally, I think about what would happen in our model if we used the same methods as they did and what we could learn from that.
Sometimes, it is also important to pay attention to why the authors decided to conduct an experiment in a certain way.
Did the authors use an obscure test instead of a routine assay, and why would they do this? -in neuroscience at Ohio State University, Columbus I always start with title and abstract.That tells me whether or not it’s an article I’m interested in and whether I’ll actually be able to understand it—both scientifically and linguistically.I then read the introduction so that I can understand the question being framed, and jump right to the figures and tables so I can get a feel for the data.I then read the discussion to get an idea of how the paper fits into the general body of knowledge.I pay attention to acknowledgement of limitations and proper inference of data.
Some people stretch their claims more than others, and that can be a red flag for me.I also put on my epidemiologist hat so that I can try to make sure the study design is adequate to actually test the hypotheses being examined.As I go deeper into the argument framing, figures, and discussion, I also think about which pieces are exciting and new, which ones are biologically or logically relevant, and which ones are most supported by the literature.I also consider which pieces fit with my pre-existing hypotheses and research questions.-, doctoral candidate in environmental health sciences at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor My reading strategy depends on the paper.
Sometimes I start by skimming through to see how much might be relevant.If it is directly applicable to my current topic, I’ll read the paper closely, apart from the introduction that is probably already familiar.But I always try to figure out if there are particular places or figures that I need to pay close attention to, and then I go and read the related information in the results and discussion.I also check if there are references that I may be interested in.Sometimes I am curious to see who in the field has—or more likely has not—been referenced, to see whether the authors are choosing to ignore certain aspects of the research.
I often find that the supplementary figures actually offer the most curious and interesting results, especially if the results relate to parts of the field that the authors did not reference or if they are unclear or unhelpful to their interpretation of the overall story.-, postdoctoral fellow in developmental biology at Tufts University inMedford, Massachusetts, and visiting scholar at Boston College When reading papers, it helps me to have a writing task so that I am being an active reader instead of letting my eyes glaze over mountains of text only to forget everything I just read. So for example, when I read for background information, I will save informative sentences from each article about a specific topic in a Word document.I'll write comments along the way about new ideas I got or questions I need to explore further.Then, in the future, I’ll only need to read this document instead of re-reading all the individual papers.
Likewise, when I want to figure out how to conduct a particular experiment, I create a handy table in Excel summarizing how a variety of research teams went about doing a particular experiment.-, doctoral candidate at the Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology program I usually start with the abstract, which gives me a brief snapshot of what the study is all about.Then I read the entire article, leaving the methods to the end unless I can't make sense of the results or I'm unfamiliar with the experiments.The results and methods sections allow you to pull apart a paper to ensure it stands up to scientific rigor.Always think about the type of experiments performed, and whether these are the most appropriate to address the question proposed.
Ensure that the authors have included relevant and sufficient numbers of controls.Often, conclusions can also be based on a limited number of samples, which limits their significance.I like to print out the paper and highlight the most relevant information, so on a quick rescan I can be reminded of the major points.
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Most relevant points would be things that change your thinking about your research topic or give you new ideas and directions.-,deputy head of the HIV Neuropathogenesis Lab at the Burnet Institute and adjunct research fellow in the Department of Infectious Disease at MonashUniversity inMelbourne, Australia What I choose to read is based on relation to my research areas and things that are generating lots of interest and discussion because they are driving the way we do psychology, or science more widely, in new directions.
Most often, what I am trying to get out of the papers is issues of methodology, experimental design, and statistical analysis 30 Nov 2016 - Few aspects of scientific work may be as crucial—and yet as easy to and more are tremendous, and there are only 24 hours in a day. your findings will either be old hat or too out in left field to be cited right Regarding finding the time, unless I am actively writing a grant or paper, it is harder for me to .Most often, what I am trying to get out of the papers is issues of methodology, experimental design, and statistical analysis.
And so for me, the most important section is first what the authors did (methods) and second what they found (results).It can also be interesting to understand why the authors thought they were doing the study (introduction) and what they think the results mean (discussion).When it is an area that I know a lot about, I don't usually care much about these sections because they often reflect the authors' theoretical predilections and one of many ways to think about the method and results You definitely have to know the exact bibliography meaning in a paper, The two are similar in many ways, but there are some major differences as well. Discoveries and Inventions: From Prehistoric to Modern Times. Show Me Examples Johnson, Linda A. “Fight Flu with Good, Old Advice from Mom. Vancouver:.When it is an area that I know a lot about, I don't usually care much about these sections because they often reflect the authors' theoretical predilections and one of many ways to think about the method and results. But when it is an area that I know very little about, I read these closely because then I learn a lot about the assumptions and explanatory approaches in that area of research.
-, professor in the Department of Psychology at the University of Virginia and executive director of the Center for Open Science in Charlottesville First I read very fast: The point of the first reading is simply to see whether the paper is interesting for me.If it is I read it a second time, slower and with more attention to detail.If the paper is vital to my research—and if it is theoretical—I would reinvent the paper.In such cases, I only take the starting point and then work out everything else on my own, not looking into the paper.Sometimes this is a painfully slow process.
Sometimes I get angry about the authors not writing clearly enough, omitting essential points and dwelling on superfluous nonsense.-, professor of physics at the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel I nearly always read the abstract first and only continue on to the paper if the abstract indicates that the paper will be of value to me.Then, if the topic of the paper is one I know well, I generally skim the introduction, reading its last paragraph to make sure I know the specific question being addressed in the paper.Then I look at the figures and tables, either read or skim the results, and lastly skim or read the discussion.
If the topic is not one I know well, I usually read the introduction much more carefully so that the study is placed into context for me.Then I skim the figures and tables and read the results.-As editor-in-chief ofScience, I have to read and comprehend papers outside of my field all the time.Generally, I start with the corresponding editors’ summaries, which are meant for someone like me: a science generalist who is interested in everything but dives deeply only into one field.
Next, I check to see if someone wrote a News article on the paper.
Third, I check to see if there is a Perspective by another scientist.The main goal of a Perspective is to broaden the message of the paper, but often the authors do a great job of extracting the essence of the article for non-specialists at the same time.Then I tackle the abstract, which has been written to broadly communicate to the readership of the journal.Finally, I move on to the paper itself, reading, in order, the intro, conclusions, scanning the figures, and then reading the paper through.-What do you do when there is something you don’t understand? I like to read online so that I can easily cut and paste words I don’t know into a browser to check what they mean.
- McNutt If it's only a few things in the article, I'll make a note to look them up later.If I am really struggling to proceed through the paper, I try to look up a review article or a textbook chapter to give me the necessary background to proceed, which I generally find much more efficient.There are a lot of acronyms and jargon that can be subfield-specific, so I usually don't wade through the details unless it's for my own research.But I always try to take my time to really understand the methods being used.- Shanahan I will typically pause immediately to look up things I don’t understand.
The rest of the reading may not make sense if I don’t understand a key phrase or jargon.This can backfire a bit, though, as I often go down never-ending rabbit holes after looking something up (What is X? Oh, X influences Y.This can be sort of fun as you learn how everything is connected, but if you’re crunched for time this can pull your attention away from the task at hand.Sometimes, all the jargon in a paper can cloud the whole point of the experiments in the first place.
In such cases, it helps to ask yourself, “What question were the authors trying to answer?” Then you can determine whether they succeeded or failed.-Borniger It depends on how much the non-understandable bits prevent me from following the main ideas.I usually do not try to understand all the details in all the sections the first time I read a paper.If non-understandable parts appear important for my research, I try to ask colleagues or even contact the lead author directly.Going back to the original references to get all the background information is the last resort, because time can be limited and collaborations and personal contacts can be much more efficient in solving specific problems.
- Tubiana Sometimes, you can just read through a paper and any terms you're not familiar with will become clearer by the end.If it is very heavy going, then stopping and seeking additional information is usually the way to go.I do a quick Google search on the topic, theme, method, jargon, etc.If it is a very dense article, sometimes it will require a few read-throughs before it all starts to make sense.- Gray The question I ask myself is, “Do I need to understand what that means in order to get what I need from this paper?” I now read articles in research areas well outside of my expertise, and I often don't need more than superficial knowledge of the substantive content.
If I can't do anything with the paper unless I don't understand that depth, then I do more background research.
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-Nosek Lately, I have had to read a number of papers outside my area of expertise with a lot of unfamiliar jargon.In some cases, I am able to directly extract the information I need from the results or figures and tables.In other cases, I use Google searches to define terms and concepts in the paper or read the cited references to better understand the points being made Different styles systems of referencing Citing references nbsp.In other cases, I use Google searches to define terms and concepts in the paper or read the cited references to better understand the points being made.
Occasionally, papers are so incomprehensible (to me, at least) that I don't bother reading them.
-Do you ever feel overwhelmed reading papers, and how do you deal with that? All the time. If the paper is relevant to a problem I am trying to solve, you can be sure that there are key things in the paper that I do not understand Think about what we have covered in the section on Critical writing and ask yourself how Second year student: English Literature essay; Second year student: .If the paper is relevant to a problem I am trying to solve, you can be sure that there are key things in the paper that I do not understand. That confusion is not a threat; it is an opportunity.I am ignorant; I need to become less ignorant.Simultaneously, some papers are written terribly and are not worth the effort. Someone else has surely written about the concepts more clearly so that I can keep my confusion focused on understanding substance rather than poor grammar.-Nosek I especially get overwhelmed if it's not in my subfield, if it's long, and if it's full of technical jargon.When this happens, I break it down into chunks and will read it over the course of a few days, if possible.For really difficult papers, it also helps to sit down and work through it with a colleague.
This is why I developed my own reading strategies, by talking to other scientists and by trial and error.I also have thrown up my hands in frustration and tossed the offending papers away, never to read them again.-Boehnke Yes, and in these cases you have to realize that some papers are the result of years of work by dozens of scientists.Expecting to digest and understand everything in it in one afternoon is a far-fetched idea.
-Borniger I have often felt overwhelmed! But certain sections might not need as deep an understanding as others.You also need to know your own limits: Are there some parts of the paper that you would like to emulate but are not part of your expertise and might become “accessible” through collaborations? -Tubiana If I feel the paper is very important to what I’m doing, I’ll leave it a while and go back to it again a couple of times.But if it’s too overwhelming, then I have to leave it aside, unless someone among the colleagues I have contacted has been able to interpret it.- McDowell Do you have any other tips you’d like to share? If there is a seminal paper I want to thoroughly understand, I find some way to give a journal club-style presentation about it.
Speaking about a particular paper and answering questions is the best way for me to learn the material.
Mendeley helps me do my research, read literature, and write papers.- Colucci At the beginning, new academic readers find it slow because they have no frame of reference for what they are reading.But there are ways to use reading as a system of creating a mental library, and after a few years, it becomes easy to slot papers onto your mental shelves.Then you can quickly skim a paper to know its contribution.
Don’t be afraid or ashamed to use Wikipedia or other, more lay-audience sources like blog posts to get a feel for your topic.If you can’t get a clear understanding of the paper, talk with people in your circle.If you are still confused and it's really important to understand the concepts, email the authors.
- Boehnke Don’t hesitate to talk to more experienced scientists.You will be doing THEM a favor by having them explain to you in terms you understand what a complex paper means.All scientists need more experience translating complex concepts into common terms.-McNutt If at all possible, read often.Try to keep a bibliography file with a summary of the article, any important points, even a figure or two, along with citation information.
Pay attention to different ways of structuring an article, and pay attention to different styles of writing.This will help you develop a style that is effective and also unique.- Shanahan American Meteorological Society (AMS) style The Department of Meteorology recommend using the AMS style for citations.See your student handbook for more detailed guidance.More examples can be found in the AMS author/reference citation guide (PDF) - be aware this is an earlier edition, so check carefully against the latest version.
Note that AMS style requires that journal names are abbreviated.A list of suitable abbreviations can be found here, or look at the CAS Source Index (CASSI) Search Tool.APA referencing APA referencing is a variant on Harvard style.Most of the conventions are the same, with brief author-date citations in brackets in the body of the text and full citations in the reference list.It is usual to include a reference list only rather than a bibliography in APA style.
Citations for websites are also slightly different, with no need to include a date accessed.Example for website: In bibliography: The National Autistic Society (2014).
Help me do a college antique literature research paper 14 days 16 pages / 4400 words us letter size british
Retrieved from /working-with/health/information-for-general-practitioners/ .For more information (but always check your course handbook first): Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (APA) - in Library at 808.
066-AME Harvard referencing Also known as 'author-date' style Example essays Skills Hub University of Sussex.066-AME Harvard referencing Also known as 'author-date' style.
In Harvard style the in-text citation can be in brackets in the body of the text or in footnotes, and uses the author's surname and the date of publication, with the page number if it is a reference to a particular page.Full details are only listed in the bibliography or reference list.Note that because Harvard is a 'style' rather than a system or set of rules, the preferred punctuation and formatting of the text may differ Order a college research paper antique literature 55 pages / 15125 words two hours Rewriting Master's.Note that because Harvard is a 'style' rather than a system or set of rules, the preferred punctuation and formatting of the text may differ.Check for any examples in your course handbook, and if they are not available, be consistent.
Example for book: In bibliography: Shriver, D.Example for website: In bibliography: National Autistic Society (2014) Recognising autism spectrum disorder, online at /working-with/health/information-for-general-practitioners/ , accessed 23/07/14.For more information (but always check your course handbook first): MHRA referencing for English Literature MHRA referencing distinguishes between citations for primary texts (e.
novels, poems etc) and secondary texts (e.critical works, additional information).
Most in-text citations are in footnotes.
Full details (including editions and translation details if appropriate) should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text for both primary and secondary texts.After this, a shortened version can be used, either in brackets in the body of the text, or in footnotes.Whichever method you choose, be consistent.Examples for primary and secondary texts: In-text, first mention, primary text: (in footnote) Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed.All further references to this text are from this edition and are given parenthetically in the essay.In-text, following mentions, primary text: (in body of text) (Dickinson, p.174) In-text, first mention, secondary text: (in footnote) Brian Vickers, Francis Bacon and Renaissance Prose (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1968) p.In-text, following mentions, secondary text: (in footnote) Vickers, p.In bibliography, primary and secondary texts: Emily Dickinson, The Complete Poems, ed.
For more information (but always check your course handbook first): See Ch.11, section 4 for the Author-Date system.OSCOLA referencing OSCOLA stands for Oxford Standard for the Citation of Legal Authorities.
It is preferred by the School of Law at Reading, as it has rules for dealing with the kind of sources that law students will frequently use, including cases, statutes and command papers.In-text citations are placed in footnotes, with a formal set of abbreviations for key sources, e.Punctuation is kept at a minimum, and there are specific rules for dealing with subsequent mentions.
If you are studying Law, you will be given guidelines on how the School expects you to use OSCOLA, and it is important to follow these.Example for book: The Concept of Law (2nd edn, Clarendon Press 1994) 135.In bibliography: Hart HLA, For more information (but always check your course handbook first): How to cite legal authorities In the Library at 340.035-FRE Manual of legal citations 2 vols In the Library at 340.035-LON Oxford referencing In Oxford referencing, in-text citations are in footnotes.
Full details should be included in the footnotes for the first mention of a text.After this, a shortened version can be used.Example for book: In-text, first mention: (in footnote) Jonathan Bell, The Liberal State on Trial: The Cold War and American Politics in the Truman Years (New York, 2004) p.In-text, following mentions: (in footnote) Bell, The Liberal State on Trial, p.
In bibliography: Jonathan Bell, The Liberal State on Trial: The Cold War and American Politics in the Truman Years (New York, 2004).For more information (but always check your course handbook first): Vancouver (numeric) referencing In Vancouver referencing, which is a numeric referencing style, each source is given a number which corresponds to the order in which it appears in the text.If the same source is referred to again in the text, the same number is used.The reference list comprises a single numbered list of citations with full details.
You may also include a separate bibliography, alphabetically ordered by author, which lists works that you have used as part of your research for your assignment but not cited in the text.Example for journal article: In-text: It has been noted that performance does not always match expectations. Foreign ownership and profitability: Property rights, control, and the performance of firms in Indian industry.
Journal of Law & Economics 1999 ;42(1): 209-238.